1General Queries
Q1.1Who is running the project?
A1.1Kilkenny County Council is the lead authority and in partnership with Tipperary County Council, Transport Infrastructure Ireland (TII) and the Department of Transport (DoT) is developing the N24 Waterford to Cahir Project. The project is being managed by Tramore House Regional Design Office with Arup appointed as lead consultant to advance the project through the planning and design process.
Q1.2Why is the project needed?
A1.2The N24 is a strategic corridor from Limerick to Waterford and is particularly important for the enhancement of accessibility to the towns it passes either directly through or nearby, namely Tipperary Town, Cahir, Clonmel, Carrick-on-Suir, Mooncoin and other rural hinterland. The N24 Waterford to Cahir Project endeavours to resolve the existing transport and safety issues along the section of the N24 between Waterford and Cahir.
Q1.3 What is the purpose of the public consultation on Alternatives and Options?
A1.3The purpose of public consultation is to inform members of the public of the progress of the project at any given stage and to provide an opportunity for the public to give feedback. Feedback may involve providing local information which may be useful for the design team and it allows members of the public to express their opinions and concerns. It also allows the design team to absorb and utilise feedback while the design is in progress. Public consultation forms an important part of advancing the design process towards the development of transport solutions.
The project held the non-statutory Phase 2 Public Consultation on Constraints in May 2021, where feedback was sought on the constraints within the project study area. The information displayed can be found here. Following this consultation, the project is developing a series of Alternatives and Options for which a public consultation will be held in Q1 2022.
This objective of Public Consultation No. 2 is to consult with the public on Alternatives and Options. The consultation will present Alternatives which include Active Travel proposals (mainly walking and cycling), Public Transport proposals, Demand Management proposals and potential road based links in the street network near urban areas which may remove the need for more substantial road based interventions such as a bypass.
The options presented will include the Do-Minimum Option, the Management Option and three additional road based options. The Do-Minimum Option involves maintaining the existing infrastructure and constructing schemes that have already been committed, such as the N24 Tower Road Junction scheme. It is the base case against which all other options are assessed. The Management Option aims to reutilise the existing N24 where feasible and comprises on-line upgrades and short sections of off-line realignments. There are also many switches under consideration, whereby a switch facilitates a movement from one option to another option.
Each option will be presented as a corridor. The corridor does not represent the actual width of potential road infrastructure or the lands required to facilitate such infrastructure. The corridor instead indicates the lands within which road infrastructure could be developed. As the study progresses, designs will be developed within these option corridors and they will be reduced in width appropriately.
Q1.4How has the project developed?
A1.4Transport Infrastructure Ireland (TII) has produced guidelines for the development of projects and the process is broken into eight individual phases. Phase 0 (Scope and Pre-Appraisal) involved the preparation of the Project Appraisal Plan which was approved by TII in July 2019. Phase 1 (Concept and Feasibility) of the project commenced in July 2020 following the appointment of the Technical Adviser (ARUP). During this phase the need for intervention was identified and the project objectives were defined. Following approval to proceed from TII, Phase 2 (Options Selection) commenced in April 2021. The purpose of Phase 2 is to identify constraints to the development of the project, followed by the development and assessment of feasible solutions in order to determine the preferred solution for the project.
Q1.5What is the expected cost of the project?
A1.5This information is not yet available. The process of developing potential solutions has commenced but until such time as the preferred solution has been identified the expected cost of the scheme cannot be determined. As the project progresses further the costs will be developed and as the level of detail increases these costs will be refined.
Q1.6How is the feedback received as part of the Public Consultation No. 1 Constraints used?
A1.6The information is very valuable as additional constraints can be identified through this feedback. This helps inform our development of Alternatives and Options.
Q1.7When will the planning permissions, which are currently frozen due to comments from this scheme, be unfrozen?
A1.7Potential solutions are expected to be developed by Q4 2021 with a public consultation to follow in Q1 2022. Planning reviews continue to be undertaken by the project team on all planning applications of interest throughout the duration of the project, noting that the extent of the area of interest will reduce as the project progresses towards defining the emerging preferred solution. The current area of interest is the constraints study area. Once the public consultation on Alternatives and Options commences, the area of interest will be refined to corridors along those solutions and once the preferred solution is selected, the area of interest will again be further refined.
Q1.8What do I do whilst awaiting the decision on the preferred corridor?
A1.8You can contact the project team if you have any questions or require further information. You can also refer to the project website where you will find the latest information and news about the project.
Q1.9Where can I find information displayed from the Public Consultation No. 1 Constraints?
A1.9All of the constraints mapping is available through the project website and the interactive webmap. The public consultation material can still be viewed on the project website here.
Q1.10What facilities are being provided for pedestrians and cyclists?
A1.10Pedestrian and cycling facilities are being assessed for their potential to address the transportation problems identified. As part of the development of Alternatives, a series of potential Active Travel measures, which include pedestrian and cycle facilities, will be developed for consultation and assessment as part of the process in determining a preferred solution.
Q1.11How will my personal data be handled?    
A1.11Our full Privacy Statement with regards to the collection and usage of personal data is available on the project website.
Personal data provided to the project team is stored securely and in accordance with General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) requirements. The data will only be used for the purposes of the N24 Waterford to Cahir Project. Data will not be retained for any longer than is necessary.
Q1.12Who finally decides to give planning permission for the project or not?     
A1.12The decision to give planning permission for the project will be made by An Bord Pleanála after an Oral Hearing.
Q1.13When will the project be submitted for planning permission and get planning consent?
A1.13The project is currently programmed to submit a planning application to An Bord Pleanála in Q4 2024. Once the planning application is submitted An Bord Pleanála, they dictate the project timeline for the Oral Hearing (if one is required) and their decision date.
Q1.14When is the earliest timeframe that the project could be built if the project is approved by An Bord Pleanála?
A1.14The project is currently programmed to submit a planning application to An Bord Pleanála in Q4 2024. Once the planning application is submitted, An Bord Pleanála dictate the project timeline for the Oral Hearing (if one is required) and their decision date. If a positive decision is made by An Bord Pleanála, and there are no legal challenges to this decision,  funding for construction would then require approval by government. The detailed design of the project would then need to be undertaken along with the appointment of a contractor to construct the project. The timelines for these processes are unknown at this stage and are outside the control of the current project. The duration for construction is also currently unknown as the extents of the project are still unknown at this stage.
Q1.15Why is the project starting again from a blank canvas? What has happened to the previous project?
A1.15The previous project was developed and assessed nearly 10 years ago and a lot may have changed in those years in terms of constraints and people’s movements (travel for work, education and recreation). There have been changes to environmental legislation, government policy and design standards in this period also. Therefore, it is important to start from a blank canvas to fully understand what the current constraints and transport issues are, what are the trip generators and attractors and what is the most optimal transport solution. Whilst starting from a blank canvas the project will take cognisance of previous study outcomes and current planned, committed and aspirational schemes when developing Alternatives and Options.
Q1.16Can a member of the project team be contacted by the public or their representative to ascertain if a proposed planning application will be affected by the project?
A1.16 Yes, our project team is available for the full duration of the project to answer any questions the public and interested parties may have in relation to project. The project team will be able to advise of any potential conflicts between the proposed planning application and this project.
Q1.17Will the proposed project include green initiatives and technologies such as facilities for autonomous vehicles?
A1.17Yes, all transport modes including walking and cycling facilities and improved public transport are being considered as part of the project. Future technologies such as facilities for autonomous vehicles will also be considered.
Q1.18How does the project align to the Government’s commitment to net-zero?
A1.18 The N24 Waterford to Cahir Project’s objectives take cognisance of current national, regional and local policy and plans in regard to climate, the environment and future transport hierarchy. All the Alternatives and Options will be tested against these objectives to ensure that the preferred solution aligns with government policy.
A1.19What is the current red line shown on the Public Consultation No. 1 Constraints maps, and does this indicate a road option?
Q1.19The solid red line shown on Public Consultation No. 1 Constraints maps symbolises the study area boundary. This marks the extent of the assessment area. On the interactive map on the project website this boundary symbology has been updated to “—Study—” in red. This boundary represents the area within which the project is considering the location of potential Alternatives and Options and does not indicate the route of a road based option.
2Study Area and Environmental Issues
Q2.1How was the study area defined?
A2.1The study area was developed to ensure there is enough scope to consider all aspects of a sustainable transport solution for this section of the N24 corridor. It encompasses the extents of the former Emerging Preferred Route Corridors (EPRC) from previous studies while also allowing for the development of additional Alternatives and Options as well as fully including the existing N24 under consideration and the towns and villages along the route.

The selection of the study area was further influenced by the following factors;
• Topography within the area
• Extent and catchment of public transport infrastructure
• Environmental criteria
• Potential zone of influence of Alternatives and Options

In addition to the project study area the project has a transport model study area to assess the wider benefits of Alternatives and Options, including public transport corridors which fall outside of the immediate study area.
Q2.2What was the purpose of the Constraints Study which you consulted on in May 2021?
A2.2The initial step in the Phase 2 (Options Selection) process is to undertake a detailed Constraints Study in order to identify the nature and extent, at an appropriate level of detail, of constraints within a defined study area.
The identification of constraints involves initially carrying out desktop studies. The extent and nature of certain constraints are then verified by means of windshield or walkover field surveys. These surveys are further supplemented through stakeholder engagement and public consultation.
These constraints are documented and mapped and are used to inform the development of feasible solutions for the project.
Q2.3Who is carrying out the environmental assessments on the options?
A2.3A large team of specialists are conducting the environmental assessments for the project. The numerous disciplines and their relevant specialists are listed below.
Landscape and Visual – Brady Shipman Martin
Biodiversity – Scott Cawley Ltd.
Archaeology and Cultural Heritage – Irish Archaeological Consultancy (IAC)
Human Beings and Population – Optimize Consultants
Air Quality – Arup
Climate – Arup
Noise and Vibration – AWN Consulting
Soils and Geology – Arup
Hydrogeology – Arup
Hydrology – Hydro Environmental Ltd.
Agronomy – Curtin Agricultural Consultants
Q2.4How will the project address flood risk?
A2.4A Flood Risk Assessment (FRA) will be carried out in accordance with the Planning System and Flood Risk Management Guidelines (2009). This assessment will investigate the potential flood risk to the proposed project itself and the potential flood impact arising from the proposed project, including the construction of embankments. This assessment will be undertaken in accordance with the DoEHLG Planning System and Flood Risk Management Guidelines for Planning Authorities. To inform the FRA for the proposed project, the website floodinfo.ie, the Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment (PFRA) and the Catchment Flood Risk Assessment and Management (CFRAM) flood mapping will be consulted.  Hydraulic flood modelling will be carried out for river crossings and their associated flood plains to estimate the design flood level and potential impact of the proposed project.
The assessment will identify the sources of flood risk to the proposed project. This can include fluvial (i.e. flooding arising from rivers/streams), pluvial (i.e. flooding arising from rainfall) and groundwater sources. The objective of the design of the project is to ensure the proposed design will not incur flood risk on the project itself or on the surrounding lands.
3Landowner Issues, Compensation and Access
Q3.1What do I do if I want to object?
A3.1Formal objections can be submitted to An Bord Pleanála, but only after the Compulsory Purchase Order (CPO) and the EIAR have been published.  In the interim, please feel free to contact the project team with your concerns as it may be possible to mitigate issues throughout the design process.
Q3.2When will I know the options and the final option chosen and how will I find out how I am affected?
A3.2The project team is currently developing Alternatives and Options and expect to have a second public consultation in relation to these in Q1 2022. Refer to A.1.3 above for an outline of this public consultation.
The project team will endeavour to identify and notify all landowners who are affected by these potential Alternatives and Options at the second public consultation.
Q3.3Who is entitled to compensation?
A3.3Compensation will be paid wherever land or property is directly affected (i.e. land or property has been purchased).
Q3.4If the project passes through my land, will you help me to relocate or will I get special preference from the council with regard to a future planning application for a new site?
A3.4Should there be a requirement to acquire residential property in the future, it would be a matter for the local authority to address.  Each landowner affected shall be compensated financially on an individual basis particular to their circumstances. All planning matters arising out of relocation of families will follow normal planning procedures and due process. 
Q3.5If access to my property is impacted and an access track is being provided for my lands, however, I have to travel 1km or 1.5km extra to access a parcel of land, will I be compensated for that inconvenience?
A3.5Compensation shall be assessed on a case-by-case basis preferably by agreement between the County Council and the landowner. The compensation includes for the value of land, the extent of severance, disturbance and injurious affection caused by the project.

• Value of land – This shall be the market value of the land acquired and shall be the value on the date that the Notice to Treat is served.
• Extent of severance – Payment shall be made where the loss of the land acquired by CPO reduces the value of the land retained due to severance.
• Disturbance – This covers items such as relocation expenses, the costs associated with purchasing replacement land and disruption / inconvenience.
• Injurious affection – covers the damage to the land by reason of the new use of the land acquired by CPO (e.g. loss of privacy and noise / pollution).
Q3.6Will copies of the studies/reports and maps be made available to nominated community representatives to ensure full communication of the proposals?
A3.6Yes. When complete, the reports will be placed in the local council offices and on the project web site.
Q3.7How are residences not impacted by landtake treated for adverse noise, air or visual disturbance?
A3.7This shall be considered during the Design Stage and Environmental Evaluation. Detailed noise and vibration, air quality and visual impact assessments will be carried out as part of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process. Where deemed necessary, mitigation measures will be incorporated into the design of the project to reduce these impacts e.g. natural screening, environmental /noise barriers and landscaping.
Q3.8How would businesses not impacted by landtake be treated for adverse noise, air or visual disturbance or by loss of business due to road closures or diversions or bypassing (i.e. B&Bs, Petrol stations, and public houses)?
A3.8Adverse noise, air or visual impacts shall be considered during the Design Stage and Environmental Evaluation. Where deemed necessary, the design may include noise, air and visual mitigation measures, e.g. natural screening, environmental/noise barriers and landscaping. There shall be no financial compensation for noise, air or visual disturbance if there is no landtake.
Non-permanent road closures or diversions are designed to be in effect for the shortest time possible. There shall be no financial compensation for loss of business due to intermittent road closures or diversions or bypassing.
Q3.9What type of surveys will be done on my land?
A3.9Environmental specialists may have been carrying out non-invasive site surveys (e.g. site walking for archaeology, habitat/mammal surveys for ecology etc.) on your property as part of the environmental studies. Landowners impacted by these site surveys will have received a letter in August informing them of the survey access requirements.
All specialists will be carrying identification and a letter of authorisation from Kilkenny County Council as lead authority for the N24 Waterford to Cahir Project. If you have any concerns about the people requesting to enter your land, please contact the project team.
To inform the development of Alternatives and Options during Phase 2, ground investigation surveys will be undertaken in 2022. Surveys will include walkovers, trial pits and boreholes. Where access is required, landowners will be contacted in advance to seek consent to enter onto land prior to commencing any works. Landowners will be compensated for intrusive surveys i.e. trial pits, boreholes etc as per agreed TII compensation rates for such works.
Q3.10What happens if I don’t want someone entering my land?
A3.10Access to land for investigative work shall be required by the local authority and its consultants at different stages in the planning of a project. At the early stages superficial examination of the land may suffice. More detailed investigation shall be necessary as planning progresses to determine the actual line of the project and the ground conditions that could affect construction.
With your co-operation, persons authorised by the local authority are entitled to enter onto land at reasonable times for the purpose of road planning and related functions. The persons concerned may carry out surveys, investigations, excavations, borings or tests in connection with the project. The project commenced non-invasive surveys in Summer 2021 for which landowners received notification via letter. Should intrusive surveys be required at your property, you will be contacted again specifically in relation to that survey.
Where access shall be required to any landholding, the local authority will give at least 14 days prior written notice of the date the authority intends to initially enter onto land and commence any of the works and will, when requested and to the extent feasible, provide an indicative time of arrival to the landowner together with a contact number. Where intrusive surveys are required, written consent will be sought.
Where co-operation regarding access to land shall not be forthcoming, the local authority, in the first instance, will seek to engage with the landowner to agree access but failing this it may exercise its legal entitlement under the Roads Act, 1993, to enter onto the lands concerned at all reasonable times Access to land for site investigation and related activities will be subject to the Code of Practice on disease prevention.
Q3.11Will I be compensated if there are surveys being undertaken on my land?
A3.11You will not be compensated for non-invasive surveys that are undertaken on your property. These walkover surveys will leave no point marks, etchings, holes or other evidence of the survey on the site.
You will be compensated for surveys that cause any damage to your land i.e. trial trenches, boreholes, archaeological trial pits etc. There are set rates for this compensation in accordance with the TII guidelines.
Q3.12When will the affected landowners under corridors be contacted?
A3.12A public consultation will be held to present the Alternatives and Options identified to the public. The project team will endeavour in so far as possible to identify and notify all property owners within the option corridors by letter of the public consultation. Letters will provide information on how to access the consultation and invite land owners within the option corridors to book a meeting with the project team.
4Traffic Queries
Q4.1What are the current volumes of traffic on the existing N24?
A4.1The existing N24 within the study area is a busy national primary road. The traffic flows measured at the four TII Traffic Monitoring Units (TMUs) within the study area demonstrate variability in traffic volumes along the N24 across the study area. The values present an average with notable daily rises above the averages at peak periods. Up-to-date information about traffic volumes at these sites is available by clicking on the following links on this website https://trafficdata.tii.ie/publicmultinodemap.asp :

N24 North of Cahir, Kilemly
N24 Between Clonmel and Cahir, Woodrooffe
N24 Between Carrick-on-Suir and Clonmel, Killaloan
N24 Between Carrick-on-Suir and Waterford, Piltown

In addition to the TII TMU data outlined above, additional traffic count surveys were undertaken in Clonmel in January 2018. Survey results showed that the highest AADT recorded on the N24 along the Clonmel Inner Relief Road was between the Cashel Road Roundabout and the Fethard Road Roundabout where an AADT of 25,100 was observed.
Q4.2Will additional traffic surveys be carried out and when?
A4.2As part of Phase 2 additional traffic surveys were undertaken in September 2021 at locations throughout the transport study area following the easing of Covid restrictions. Data collected from these surveys will be used as part of the assessment of Alternatives and Options. Further surveys may be undertaken in Phase 3 if required.
Q4.3What is meant by Demand Management?
A4.3Demand management policies seek to influence road user behaviour, to encourage individuals to make journeys at off peak times, travel by a different mode such as cycling, walking and public transport or avoid making the trip altogether. To achieve this objective, a range of both fiscal and non-fiscal measures can be implemented which serve either to reduce or divert demand or achieve a combination of both. Examples of fiscal demand management measures include:
• Road user charging – This may be variable, i.e. related to time of day, vehicle class or emissions class etc.

• Parking charges
• Public transport subsidies
• Fuel taxes

Non-fiscal demand management measures may include:

• Access control and restriction (e.g. ramp metering)
• Public transport improvements
• Traffic control measures (e.g. variable speed limits)
• Smarter travel measures (e.g. intelligent transport systems, incident detection)
• Road space reduction/travel restrictions
Q4.4What public transportation solutions are being considered?
A4.4The project team will consider enhancing, extension, or provision of public transport services or public transport infrastructure.
When developing Alternatives for assessment there is merit and need to consider Public Transport Alternatives as potential solutions to test against the Project Objectives.
At this stage a decision has not been made to build a new road and both Public Transport Alternatives and road based Options are being considered at the Options Selection phase.
Q4.5What are the safety benefits of the project?
A4.5At Phase 1 a high-level examination of the transportation issues which affect road safety along the extents of the N24 within the project extents was carried out. The assessment identified high concentrations of collisions compared against the expected collision rate for a similar road type when compared to the national average. Collisions are located both within urban areas where there are higher numbers of conflicts between pedestrians and motorised vehicles and on rural sections that have sub-standard road geometry combined with a high frequency of accesses and junctions.
The project has objectives, specifically related to road safety, which target reducing the potential frequency and severity of collisions, reducing the potential for conflict with vulnerable road users and creating a safer and healthier environment which promotes active travel.
A number of Alternatives and Options are being developed. No decision has been made on a preferred solution at this stage, therefore the expected safety benefits of the project cannot be determined, however all solutions will be assessed against the above objectives to ensure they meet the road safety objectives.
Q4.6How is the project considering the use of rail as a solution?
A4.6As part of Phase 2 (Options Selection) the project will consider both road based Options and Alternatives such as Active Travel, Demand Management and Public Transport. The project will consider how the existing Limerick to Waterford railway can provide a solution to the issues identified on the existing N24 in line with the project objectives and the future transport hierarchy.
Q4.7Is the project committed to building a new road?
A4.7At this stage of the project no decision has been taken to construct a road. Despite previous schemes in the study area, the project is starting from a blank canvas. Potential solutions being investigated and tested against the project objectives include alternative transport modes such as bus, rail and active travel modes, and different road options including an upgrade of the existing road.
Q4.8How is the project considering the use of rail freight to alleviate existing issues on the N24?
A4.8As part of Phase 2 (Options Selection) the project will consider both road based Options and Alternatives such as Active Travel, Demand Management and Public Transport. The project will consider how the existing Limerick to Waterford railway could provide additional capacity to support the transition of road freight to rail as a solution to the issues identified on the existing N24. There are a number of ongoing studies external to the N24 Waterford to Cahir Project, such as the Rail Freight Strategy and the All Ireland Rail Review, which may influence future policy in relation to the transport of freight by rail in Ireland. Potential transport solutions for the N24 project will be guided by any future recommendations from these studies in relation to the Limerick to Waterford railway line.
Q4.9How is the project accounting for the impact of Covid-19 on travel demands?
A4.9The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated travel restrictions introduced by the Government to reduce the spread of the virus in Ireland have had a significant impact on travel patterns. The pandemic may change travel demand, the modes used, peak demand periods and the types of journeys taken. The project continues to monitor the existing traffic flows and Government guidance in relation to Covid-19 restrictions to inform decisions on the timing of traffic surveys. The project will also take steps such as sensitivity analysis, to identify any impact on the existing base line traffic on the N24 from a potential “new-normal” post restrictions i.e. change to peak hour, demand, types of journey. Assessments will be in line with TII guidance on accounting for the impact on traffic modelling by the pandemic.

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